Sea Otter Publications



Breed, G. A., Golson, E. A., & Tinker, M. T. (2017). Predicting animal home-range structure and transitions using a multistate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck biased random walk. Ecology, 98(1), 32-47. doi:10.1002/ecy.1615

Tinker, M. T., Tomoleoni, J., LaRoche, N., Bowen, L., Miles, A. K., Murray, M., Staedler, M., & Randell, Z. (2017). Southern Sea Otter Range Expansion and Habitat Use in the Santa Barbara Channel, California (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2017-1001), 76 pp. doi:10.3133/ofr20171001



Bentall, G. B., Rosen, B. H., Kunz, J. M., Miller, M. A., Saunders, G. W., & LaRoche, N. L. (2016). Characterization of the putatively introduced red alga Acrochaetium secundatum(Acrochaetiales, Rhodophyta) growing epizoically on the pelage of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Marine Mammal Science, 32(2), 753-764. doi:10.1111/mms.12275

Bowen, L., Miles, A., Ballachey, B., Waters, S., & Bodkin, J. (2016). Gene transcript profiling in sea otters post-Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: A tool for marine ecosystem health assessment. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 4(2), 39.

Chinn, S. M., Miller, M. A., Tinker, M. T., Staedler, M. M., Batac, F. I., Dodd, E. M., & Henkel, L. A. (2016). The high cost of motherhood: end-lactation syndrome in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) on the central California coast, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 52(2), 307-318. doi:10.7589/2015-06-158

Ghoul, A., & Reichmuth, C. (2016). Auditory sensitivity and masking profiles for the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). In N. A. Popper & A. Hawkins (Eds.), The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II (pp. 349-354). New York, NY: Springer New York.

Lee, E. A., Byrne, B. A., Young, M. A., Murray, M., Miller, M. A., & Tell, L. A. (2016). Pharmacokinetic indices for cefovecin after single-dose administration to adult sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, doi:10.1111/jvp.12322

Schott, K. C., Krusor, C., Tinker, M. T., Moore, J., Conrad, P. A., & Shapiro, K. (2016). Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).Parasitology, 1-10. doi:10.1017/S0031182016001359

Shapiro, K., Miller, M. A., Packham, A. E., Aguilar, B., Conrad, P. A., Vanwormer, E., & Murray, M. J. (2016). Dual congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in a late- term aborted pup from a chronically infected southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis).Parasitology, 143(03), 276-288. doi:10.1017/S0031182015001377

Tarjan, L. M., & Tinker, M. T. (2016). Permissible Home Range Estimation (PHRE) in restricted habitats: A new algorithm and an evaluation for sea otters. PLoS ONE, 11(3), 1-20. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150547

Thometz, N. M., Kendall, T. L., Richter, B. P., & Williams, T. M. (2016). The high cost of reproduction in sea otters necessitates unique physiological adaptations. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 219(15), 2260-2264. doi:10.1242/jeb.138891

Thometz, N. M., Staedler, M. M., Tomoleoni, J. A., Bodkin, J. L., Bentall, G. B., & Tinker, M. T. (2016). Trade-offs between energy maximization and parental care in a central place forager, the sea otter. Behavioral Ecology. doi:10.1093/beheco/arw089



Fujii, J. A., Ralls, K., & Tinker, M. T. (2015). Ecological drivers of variation in tool-use frequency across sea otter populations. Behavioral Ecology, 26, 519-526.

Johnson, A. B., & Mayer, K. A. (2015). The value of rescuing, treating, and releasing live-stranded sea otters. In S. E. Larson, G. R. VanBlaricom, & J. L. Bodkin (Eds.), Sea Otter Conservation (pp. 235- 255). Boston: Academic Press.

Murray, M. J. (2015). Veterinary Medicine and Sea Otter Conservation. In S. E. Larson, G. R. VanBlaricom, & J. L. Bodkin (Eds.), Sea Otter Conservation (pp. 159-195). Boston: Academic Press.

Newsome, S. D., Tinker, M. T., Gill, V. A., Hoyt, Z. N., Doroff, A., Nichol, L., & Bodkin, J. L. (2015). The interaction of intraspecific competition and habitat on individual diet specialization: a near range-wide examination of sea otters. Oecologia, 178(1), 45-59. doi:10.1007/s00442-015-3223-8

Novak, M., & Tinker, M. (2015). Timescales alter the inferred strength and temporal consistency of intraspecific diet specialization. Oecologia, 178(1), 61-74. doi:10.1007/s00442-014-3213-2

Thometz, N. M., Murray, M. J., & Williams, T. M. (2015). Ontogeny of oxygen storage capacity and diving ability in the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis): Costs and benefits of large lungs.Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 88(3), 311-327.

Tinker, M. T., Hatfield, B. B., Harris, M. D., & Ames, J. A. (2015). Dramatic increase in sea otter mortality from white sharks in California. Marine Mammal Science, 32(1), 309-326.



Ballachey, B. E., Monson, D. H., Kloecker, K. A., Esslinger, G. G., Mohr, F. C., Lipscomb, T. P., Murray, M. J., & Howlin, S. (2014). Synthesis of Nearshore Recovery following the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Sea Otter Liver Pathology and Survival in Western Prince William Sound, 2001–2008, Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project Final Report (Restoration Projects 070808 and 070808a). U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, AK. February 2014.

Bowen, L., Miles, A. K., Kolden, C. A., Saarinen, J. A., Bodkin, J. L., Murray, M. J., & Tinker, M. T. (2014). Effects of wildfire on sea otter (Enhydra lutris) gene transcription profiles. Marine Mammal Science, 31(1), 191-210.

Ghoul, A., & Reichmuth, C. (2014). Hearing in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris): auditory profiles for an amphibious marine carnivore. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural & Behavioral Physiology, 200(11), 967-981. doi:10.1007/s00359-014-0943-x

Lafferty, K. D., & Tinker, M. T. (2014). Sea otters are recolonizing southern California in fits and starts.Ecosphere, 5(5), 1-11. doi:10.1890/es13-00394.1

Li, Z. N., Ip, H. S., Trost, J. F., White, C. L., Murray, M. J., Carney, P. J., Sun, X-J., Stevens, J., Levine, M. Z., & Katz, J. M. (2014). Serologic evidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in northern sea otters. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 915-917.

Thometz, N. M., Tinker, M. T., Staedler, M. M., Mayer, K. A., & Williams, T. M. (2014). Energetic demands of immature sea otters from birth to weaning: Implications for maternal costs, reproductive behavior and population-level trends. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 217(12), 2053-2061.

Tuomi, P. A., Murray, M. J., Garner, M. M., Goertz, C. E. C., Nordhausen, R. W., Burek-Huntington, K. A., Getzy, D. M., Nielsen, O., Archer, L. L., Maness, H., Wellehan, J.,& Waltzek, T. B. (2014). Novel poxvirus infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris nereis), Alaska and California, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 50(3), 607-615.



Hughes, B. B., Eby, R., Van Dyke, E., Tinker, M. T., Marks, C. I., Johnson, K. S., & Wasson, K. (2013). Recovery of a top predator mediates negative eutrophic effects on seagrass. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(38), 15313-15318. doi:10.1073/pnas.1302805110

Kenner, M. C., Estes, J. A., Tinker, M. T., Bodkin, J. L., Cowen, R. K., Harrold, C., Hatfield, B. B., Novak, M., Rassweiler, A., & Reed, D. C. (2013). A multi-decade time series of kelp forest community structure at San Nicolas Island, California (USA). Ecology, 94(11).

Rankin, K., Alroy, K., Kudela, R., Oates, S., Murray, M., & Miller, M. (2013). Treatment of Cyanobacterial (Microcystin) Toxicosis Using Oral Cholestyramine: Case Report of a Dog from Montana. Toxins, 5(6), 1051-1063.

Tyrrell, L. P., Newsome, S. D., Fogel, M. L., Viens, M., Bowden, R., & Murray, M. J. (2013). Vibrissae growth rates and trophic discrimination factors in captive southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Journal of Mammalogy, 94(2), 331-338.



Bodkin, J. L., Ballachey, B. E., Coletti, H. A., Esslinger, G. G., Kloecker, K. A., Rice, S. D., Reed, J. A., & Monson, D. H. (2012). Long-term effects of the ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill: sea otter foraging in the intertidal as a pathway of exposure to lingering oil. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 447, 273- 287. doi:10.3354/meps09523

Bowen, L., Miles, A. K., Murray, M., Haulena, M., Tuttle, J., Van Bonn, W., Adams, L., Bodkin, J. L., Ballachey, B., Estes, J., Tinker, M. T., Keister, R., & Stott, J. L. (2012). Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): Development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health.Molecular Ecology Resources, 12(1), 67-74.

Ghoul, A., & Reichmuth, C. (2012). Sound Production and Reception in Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). In A. Popper & A. Hawkins (Eds.), Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology(pp. 157-159): Springer.

Jessup, D. A., Yeates, L. C., Toy-Choutka, S., Casper, D., Murray, M. J., & Ziccardi, M. H. (2012). Washing oiled sea otters. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 36(1), 6-15.

Miles, A. K., Bowen, L., Ballachey, B., Bodkin, J. L., Murray, M., Estes, J. A., Keister, R. A., Stott, J. (2012). Variations of transcript profiles between sea otters Enhydra lutris from Prince William Sound, Alaska, and clinically normal reference otters. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 451, 201-212.

Oates, S. C., Miller, M. A., Byrne, B. A., Chouicha, N., Hardin, D., Jessup, D., Dominik, C., Roug, A., Schriewer, A., Jang, S. S., & Miller, W. A. (2012). Epidemiology and potential land-sea transfer of enteric bacteria from terrestrial to marine species in the Monterey Bay Region of California.Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 48(3), 654-668.

Oates, S. C., Miller, M. A., Hardin, D., Conrad, P. A., Melli, A., Jessup, D. A., Dominik, C., Roug, A., Tinker, M. T., & Miller, W. A. (2012). Prevalence, Environmental Loading, and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Domestic and Wild Animals along the Central California Coast. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(24), 8762-8772. doi:10.1128/aem.02422-12

Tinker, T. M., Guimarães, P. R., Novak, M., Marquitti, F. M. D., Bodkin, J. L., Staedler, M., Bentall, G., & Estes, J. A. (2012). Structure and mechanism of diet specialisation: Testing models of individual variation in resource use with sea otters. Ecology Letters, 15(5), 475-483.



Brownstein, D., Miller, M. A., Oates, S. C., Byrne, B. A., Jang, S., Murray, M. J., Gill, V. A., and Jessup, D. A. (2011). Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from sea otters (Enhydra lutris).Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 47(2), 278-292.

Goldstein, T., Gill, V. A., Tuomi, P., Monson, D., Burdin, A., Conrad, P. A., Dunn, J. L., Field, C., Johnson, C., Jessup, D. A., Bodkin, J., & Doroff, A. M. (2011). Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 47(3), 579-592.

Hatfield, B. B., Ames, J. A., Estes, J. A., Tinker, M. T., Johnson, A. B., Staedler, M. M., & Harris, M. D. (2011). Sea otter mortality in fish and shellfish traps: Estimating potential impacts and exploring possible solutions. Endangered Species Research, 13(3), 219-229.

Righton, A. L., St. Leger, J. A., Schmitt, T., Murray, M. J., Adams, L., & Fascetti, A. J. (2011). Serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 42(1), 124-127.



Harris, H. S., Oates, S. C., Staedler, M. M., Tinker, M. T., Jessup, D. A., Harvey, J. T., & Miller, M. A. (2010). Lesions and behavior associated with forced copulation of juvenile Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) by southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Aquatic Mammals, 36(4), 331- 341.

Levin, M., Joshi, D., Draghi, A., Gulland, F. M., Jessup, D., & De Guise, S. (2010). Immunomodulatory effects upon in vitro exposure of California sea lion and southern sea otter peripheral blood leukocytes to domoic acid. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 46(2), 541-550.

Miller, M. A., Byrne, B. A., Jang, S. S., Dodd, E. M., Dorfmeier, E., Harris, M. D., Ames, J., Paradies, D., Worcester, K., Jessup, D. A., & Miller, W. A. (2010). Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and freshwater runoff. Veterinary Research, 41(1).

Miller, M. A., Conrad, P. A., Harris, M., Hatfield, B., Langlois, G., Jessup, D. A., Magargal, S. L., Packham, A. E., Toy-Choutka, S., Melli, A. C., Murray, M. A., Gulland, F. M., & Grigg, M. E. (2010). A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: Mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection. Veterinary Parasitology, 172(3-4), 183-194.

Miller, M. A., Kudela, R. M., Mekebri, A., Crane, D., Oates, S. C., Tinker, M. T., Staedler, M., Miller, W. A., Toy-Choutka, S., Dominik, C., Hardin, D., Langlois, G., Murray, M., Ward, K. & Jessup, D. A. (2010). Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: Cyanotoxin (microcystin) transfer from land to sea otters. PLoS ONE, 5(9).

Newsome, S. D., Bentall, G. B., Tinker, M. T., Oftedal, O. T., Ralls, K., Estes, J. A., & Fogel, M. L. (2010). Variation in δ13c and δ15n diet–vibrissae trophic discrimination factors in a wild population of California sea otters. Ecological Applications, 20(6), 1744-1752.

Quinn, J. H., Gaffney, P. M., Gilardi, K., Murray, M., Jessup, D. A., & Johnson, C. K. (2010). Complication Associated with Abdominal Surgical Implantation of a Radio Transmitter in an American Badger (Taxidea taxus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 41(1), 174-177. doi:10.1638/2009-0125.1



Jessup, D. A., Murray, M. J., Casper, D. R., Brownstein, D., & Kreuder-Johnson, C. (2009). Canine distemper vaccination is a safe and useful preventive procedure for southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 40(4), 705-710.

Johnson, C. K., Tinker, M. T., Estes, J. A., Conrad, P. A., Staedler, M., Miller, M. A., Jessup, D. A., & Mazet, J. A. K. (2009). Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource- limited coastal system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(7), 2242-2247.

Larson, S., Monson, D., Ballachey, B., Jameson, R., & Wasser, S. K. (2009). Stress-related hormones and genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Marine Mammal Science, 25(2), 351-372.

Miller, M. A., Barr, B. C., Nordhausen, R., James, E. R., Magargal, S. L., Murray, M., Conrad, P. A., Toy- Choutka, S., Jessup, D. A., & Grigg, M. E. (2009). Ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of Sarcocystis neurona tissue cysts in the central nervous system of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). International Journal for Parasitology, 39(12), 1363-1372.

Newsome, S.D., Tinker, M. T., Monson, D. H., Oftedal, O. T., Ralls, K., Staedler, M. M., Fogel, M. L., & Estes, J.A. (2009). Using stable isotopes to investigate individual diet specialization in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Ecology 90(4), 961-974.



Iyengar, E. V. (2008). Kleptoparasitic interactions throughout the animal kingdom and a re-evaluation, based on participant mobility, of the conditions promoting the evolution of kleptoparasitism.Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 93(4), 745-762. doi:doi:10.1111/j.1095- 8312.2008.00954.x

Miller, M. A. (2008). Tissue Cyst-Forming Coccidia of Marine Mammals. In M. E. Fowler & R. E. Miller (Eds.), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Current Therapy (Vol. 6, pp. 319-340). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Miller, M., Conrad, P., James, E. R., Packham, A., Toy-Choutka, S., Murray, M. J., Jessup, D., & Grigg, M. (2008). Transplacental toxoplasmosis in a wild southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis).Veterinary Parasitology, 153(1-2), 12-18.

Oftedal, O. T., Ralls, K., Tinker, M. T., & Green, A. (2008). Nutritional constraints on the southern sea otter in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. In Joint Final Report to Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (and Monterey Bay Sanctuary Foundation) and the Marine Mammal Commission.

Tinker, M. T., Bentall, G., & Estes, J. A. (2008). Food limitation leads to behavioral diversification and dietary specialization in sea otters. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(2), 560-565.

Tinker, M. T., Doak, D. F., & Estes, J. A. (2008). Using demography and movement behavior to predict range expansion of the southern sea otter. Ecological Applications, 18(7), 1781-1794.

Viens, M. (2008). Sea otter research and conservation. Veterinary Technician, 29(6), 342-346.



Bodkin, J. L., Monson, D. H., & Esslinger, G. G. (2007). Activity budgets derived from time-depth recorders in a diving mammal. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 71(6), 2034-2044.

Jessup, D. A., Miller, M. A., Kreuder-Johnson, C., Conrad, P. A., Tinker, M. T., Estes, J., & Mazet, J. A. K. (2007). Sea otters in a dirty ocean. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association, 231(11), 1648-1652.

Levin, M., Leibrecht, H., Mori, C., Jessup, D., & De Guise, S. (2007). Immunomodulatory effects of organochlorine mixtures upon in vitro exposure of peripheral blood leukocytes differ between free-ranging and captive southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 119(3-4), 269-277.

Nicholson, T. E., Mayer, K. A., Staedler, M. M., & Johnson, A. B. (2007). Effects of rearing methods on survival of released free-ranging juvenile southern sea otters. Biological Conservation, 138(3-4), 313-320.

Thomas, N. J., Dubey, J. P., Lindsay, D. S., Cole, R. A., & Meteyer, C. U. (2007). Protozoal meningoencephalitis in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): A histopathological and immunohistochemical study of naturally occurring cases. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 137(2-3), 102-121.

Tinker, M. T., Costa, D. P., Estes, J. A., & Wieringa, N. (2007). Individual dietary specialization and dive behaviour in the California sea otter: Using archival time-depth data to detect alternative foraging strategies. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 54(3-4), 330- 342.

Yeates, L. C., Williams, T. M., & Fink, T. L. (2007). Diving and foraging energetics of the smallest marine mammal, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Journal of Experimental Biology, 210(11), 1960-1970.



Tinker, M. T., Doak, D. F., Estes, J. A., Hatfield, B. B., Staedler, M. M., & Bodkin, J. L. (2006). Incorporating diverse data and realistic complexity into demographic estimation procedures for sea otters.Ecological Applications, 16(6), 2293-2312.

Tinker, M. T., Estes, J. A., Ralls, K., Williams, T. M., Jessup, D., & Costa, D. P. (2006). Population Dynamics and Biology of the California Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) at the Southern End of its Range. MMS OCS Study 2006-007. Coastal Research Center, Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA. 253 pp.



Conrad, P. A., Miller, M. A., Kreuder, C., James, E. R., Mazet, J., Dabritz, H., Jessup, D. A., Gulland, F., & Grigg, M. E. (2005). Transmission of Toxoplasma: Clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment. International Journal for Parasitology, 35(11-12), 1155-1168.



Bodkin, J. L., Esslinger, G. G., & Monson, D. H. (2004). Foraging depths of sea otters and implications to coastal marine communities. Marine Mammal Science, 20(2), 305-321

Jessup, D., Miller, M., Ames, J., Harris, M., Kreuder, C., Conrad, P., & Mazet, J. A. K. (2004). Southern sea otter as a sentinel of marine ecosystem health. Ecohealth, 1(3).

Louis, E. D., Murray, M. J., Miller, M. A., Pullman, S. L., & Vonsattel, J. P. G. (2004). Late-life action tremor in a southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Movement Disorders, 19(2), 222-226.

Miller, M. A., Grigg, M. E., Kreuder, C., James, E. R., Melli, A. C., Crosbie, P. R., Jessup, D. A., Boothroyd, J. C., Brownstein, D., & Conrad, P. A. (2004). An unusual genotype of Toxoplasma gondii is common in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and is a cause of mortality. International Journal of Parasitology, 34(3), 275-284.

Yeates, L. C., Williams, T. M., & Staedler, M. M. (2004). Diving and foraging energetics in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris): Is small size a disadvantage in water? Integrative and Comparative Biology, 44(6).



Ballachey, B. E., Bodkin, J. L., Howlin, S., Doroff, A. M., & Rebar, A. H. (2003). Correlates to survival of juvenile sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1992-1993. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 81(9), 1494-1510.

Estes, J., Hatfield, B. B., Ralls, K., & Ames, J. (2003). Causes of mortality in California sea otters during periods of population growth and decline. Marine Mammal Science, 19(1), 198-216.

Estes, J., Riedman, M., Staedler, M., Tinker, M. T., & Lyon, B. E. (2003). Individual variation in prey selection by sea otters: Patterns, causes and implications. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72(1), 144- 155.

Hanni, K. D., Mazet, J. A. K., Gulland, F. M. D., Estes, J., Staedler, M., Murray, M. J., Miller, M. & Jessup, D. A. (2003). Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 39(4), 837-850.

Kreuder, C., Miller, M. A., Jessup, D. A., Lowenstein, L. J., Harris, M. D., Ames, J. A., Carpenter, T. E., Conrad, P. A., Mazet, J. A. K. (2003). Patterns of mortality in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from 1998-2001. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 39(3), 495-509.

Mayer, K. A., Dailey, M. D., & Miller, M. A. (2003). Helminth parasites of the southern sea otter Enhydra lutris nereis in central California: Abundance, distribution and pathology. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 53(1), 77-88.



Bodkin, J. L., Ballachey, B. E., Dean, T. A., Fukuyama, A. K., Jewett, S. C., McDonald, L., Monson, D. H., O’Clair, C. E., & VanBlaricom, G. R. (2002). Sea otter population status and the process of recovery from the 1989 ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 241, 237-253.

Larson, S., Jameson, R., Bodkin, J., Staedler, M., & Bentzen, P. (2002). Microsatellite DNA and mitochondrial DNA variation in remnant and translocated sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations.Journal of Mammalogy, 83(3), 893-906.

Miller, M. A., Gardner, I. A., Kreuder, C., Paradies, D. M., Worcester, K. R., Jessup, D. A., Dodd, E., Harris, M. D., Ames, J. A., Packham, A. E., & Conrad, P. A. (2002). Coastal freshwater runoff is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis).International Journal for Parasitology, 32(8), 997-1006.

Miller, M. A., Hanni, K. D., Jessup, D., Estes, J., Jameson, R., Dodd, E., Barr, B. C., Lowenstine, L. J., Gulland, F. M., Conrad, P. A., Gardner, I. A., Packham, A., & Mazet, J. K. (2002). Evaluation of an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for demonstration of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondiiin the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Journal of Parasitology, 88(3), 594-599.



Jones, B. A., & DeMaster, D. P. (2001). Survivorship of captive southern sea otters. Marine Mammal Science, 17(2), 414-418.

Lander, M. E., Westgate, A. J., Bonde, R. K., & Murray, M. J. (2001). Tagging and Tracking. In L. Dierauf & F. M. D. Gulland (Eds.), CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine (pp. 851-880): CRC Press.

Miller, M. A., Crosbie, P. R., Sverlow, K., Hanni, K., Barr, B. C., Kock, N., Murray, M. J., Lowenstine, L. J., & Conrad, P. A. (2001). Isolation and characterization of Sarcocystis from brain tissue of a free- living southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) with fatal meningoencephalitis. Parasitology Research, 87(3), 252-257.


Prior to 2000

Ames, J. A., Geibel, J. J., Wendell, F. E., & Pattison, C. A. (1996). White shark-inflicted wounds of sea otters in California, 1968-1992. In A. P. Klimley & D. G. Ainley (Eds.), Great White Sharks: The Biology of Carcharodon carcharias. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Brennan, E. J., & Houck, J. (1996). Sea otters in captivity: The need for coordinated management as a conservation strategy. Endangered Species Update, 13(12), 61-67.

Jenness, R., Williams, T. D., & Mullin, R. J. (1981). Composition of milk of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris).Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, 70(3), 375-379.

Joseph, B. E., Cornell, L. H., & Williams, T. (1987). Chemical sedation of sea otters, Enhydra lutris. The Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, 18(1), 7-13.

Kvitek, R. G., Bowlby, C. E., & Staedler, M. (1993). Diet and foraging behavior of sea otters in southeast Alaska. Marine Mammal Science, 9(2), 168-181.

Lyons, K. J. (1989). Individual Variation in Diet in the Female California Sea Otter. American Zoologist, 29(4), A137-A137.

McShane, L. J., Estes, J. A., Riedman, M. L., & Staedler, M. M. (1995). Repertoire, structure, and individual variation of vocalizations in the sea otter. Journal of Mammalogy, 76(2), 414-427.

Murphy, C. J., Bellhorn, R. W., Williams, T., Burns, M. S., Schaeffel, F., & Howland, H. C. (1990). Refractive state, ocular anatomy, and accommodative range of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Vision Research, 30(1), 23-32.

Pattison, C. A., Harris, M. D., & Wendell, F. E. (1997). Sea otter, Enhydra lutris, mortalities in California, 1968 through 1993. California Department of Fish and Game Report 97-5, 48pp.

Ralls, K., Siniff, D. B., Williams, T. D., & Kuechle, V. B. (1989). An intraperitoneal radio transmitter for sea otters. Marine Mammal Science, 5(4), 376-381.

Riedman, M. L., & Estes, J. A. (1988). Predation on seabirds by sea otters. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66(6), 1396-1402.

Riedman, M. L., & Estes, J. A. (1990). The sea otter, Enhydra lutris: Behavior, ecology, and natural history. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C. 126 pp.

Riedman, M. L., J. A. Estes, M. M. Staedler, A. A. Giles, and D. R. Carlson. (1994). Breeding patterns and reproductive success of California sea otters. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 58(3), 391- 399.

Staedler, M. M., & Riedman, M. L. (1989). A case of adoption in the California sea otter. Marine Mammal Science, 5(4), 391-394.

Stetzer, E., Williams, T. D., & Nightingale, J. W. (1981). Cholangiocellular adenocarcinoma, leiomyoma, and pheochromocytoma in a sea otter. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 179(11), 1283-1284.

Stoskopf, M. K., Fishman, E. K., & Williams, T. D. (1990). Volumetric image-processing for 3-dimensional display of the skeletal anatomy of the sea otter. Veterinary Radiology, 31(3), 142-145.

Stoskopf, M. K., & Herbert, D. (1990). Selected anatomical features of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris).Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 21(1), 36-47.

Thomas, J. A., Cornell, L. H., Joseph, B. E., Williams, T. D., & Dreischman, S. (1987). An implanted transponder chip used as a tag for sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Marine Mammal Science, 3(3), 271-274.

Watanabe, J. M., & Harrold, C. (1991). Destructive grazing by sea urchins Strongylocentrotus spp. In a central California kelp forest: Potential roles of recruitment, depth, and predation. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 71(2), 125-141.

Williams, T. D., Allen, D. D., Groff, J. M., & Glass, R. L. (1992). An analysis of California sea otter (Enhydra lutris) pelage and integument. Marine Mammal Science, 8(1), 1-18.

Williams, T. D., Baylis, D. M., Downey, S. H., & Clark, R. O. (1990). A physical restraint device for sea otters. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 21(1), 105-107.

Williams, T. D., DVM, Hoefler, L., & Pinard, W. (1983). Pneumoperitoneum associated with intestinal volvulus in a sea otter. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 183(11), 1288- 1289.

Williams, T. D., & Hymer, J. (1992). Raising orphaned sea otter pups. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 201(5), 688-691.

Williams, T. D., & Pulley, L. T. (1981). Leiomyomas in two sea otters, Enhydra lutris. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 17(3), 401-404.

Williams, T. D., & Pulley, L. T. (1983). Hematology and blood chemistry in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris).Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 19(1), 44-47.

Williams, T. D., & Siniff, D. B. (1983). Surgical implantation of radiotelemetry devices in the sea otter.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 183(11), 1290-1291.

Williams, T. D., Williams, A. L., & Siniff, D. B. (1981). Fentanyl and azaperone produced neuroleptanalgesia in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 17(3), 337-342.

Williams, T. D., & Williams, T. M. (1996). The role of rehabilitation in sea otter conservation efforts.Endangered Species Update, 13(12), 50-52.

Williams, T. M., & Davis, R. W. (1995). Emergency care and rehabilitation of oiled sea otters: A guide for oil spills involving fur-bearing marine mammals. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press.

Williams, T. M., Kastelein, R. A., Davis, R. W., & Thomas, J. A. (1988). The effects of oil contamination and cleaning on sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Thermoregulatory implications based on pelt studies.Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66(12), 2776-2781.

Wilson, R. K., McCormick, C. R., Williams, T. D., & Tuomi, P. A. (1990). Clinical treatment and rehabilitation of sea otters. Biological Report: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 90(12), 326-337.